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Get Started and Signposts



Get Started

River Architect’s first tab invites the user for the creation of Conditions.

ragui

A Condition is a folder filled with Rasters that represent a temporal snapshot (situation) of a river. Conditions are stored in RiverArchitect/01_Conditions/. For example, if the goal is to assess feature lifespans based on the situation in the year 2008, the condition folder name may be 2008 and the corresponding folder is RiverArchitect/01_Conditions/2008/. The Condition name may NOT include any SPACE character and good practice is that the first 4 characters represent a 4-digit year. All other modules build on the data provided in RiverArchitect/01_Conditions/ and the modules create output folders beginning with the defined Condition name and ending with specifiers such as feature layer, reach, or fish (see bottom of HHSI output descriptions) information.

The Get Started-tab buttons invite the user to create conditions from scratch, populate (new) conditions, and make spatial subsets. Every button opens up a new window with the following options:

  • Create New Condition: Create a new Condition from scratch
  • Populate Condition: Add Morphological Unit, Depth to Groundwater, and Detrended DEM Rasters to an existing (or newly created) Condition
  • Create a spatial subset of a Condition: Define a boundary Raster that delineates a spatial frame for creating a subset of an existing Condition (useful for comparing project alternatives at different sites).

Create New Condition

The creation of a new Condition requires that a 2D hydrodynamic model was previously run to obtain spatially explicit flow depth and velocity data. Moreover, grain size data (spatially explicit )and a digital terrain elevation model need to be available. A new popup window inquires following inputs for generating a new Condition from scratch:

  • A name for the new Condition
  • A folder containing flow velocity Rasters (preferably use GeoTFF .tif Rasters) corresponding to multiple discharges (read more on discharge definitions). A Raster string may be defined to select only Rasters that contain certain letters in their name from the defined folder (e.g., enter u).
  • A folder containing flow depth Rasters (preferably use GeoTFF .tif Rasters) corresponding to multiple discharges (read more on discharge definitions). A Raster string may be defined to select only Rasters that contain certain letters in their name from the defined folder (e.g., enter h).
  • A DEM (Digital Elevation Model) or DTM (Digital Terrain elevation Model) of the terrain covered by the flow depth and velocity Rasters.
  • A Grain Size Raster (U.S. customary: in feet or SI metric: in meters).
  • An optional folder containing velocity angle Rasters (preferably use GeoTFF .tif Rasters) corresponding to multiple discharges (read more on discharge definitions). Note that velocity angles are defined in degrees from North, i.e. North=0, East=90, West=-90, South=180/-180. A Raster string may be defined to select only Rasters that contain certain letters in their name from the defined folder (e.g., enter va).
  • An optional Scour Raster (U.S. customary: in feet or SI metric: in meters) containing annual scour rates, which may result from terrain change detection analyses (Pasternack and Wyrick 2017) or hydro-morphodynamic modeling (tricky).
  • An optional Fill Raster (U.S. customary: in feet or SI metric: in meters) containing annual fill rates, which may result from terrain change detection analyses (Pasternack and Wyrick 2017) or hydro-morphodynamic modeling (tricky).
  • A background Raster, which can optionally be used to Align Input Rasters.

Note that the optional inputs are highly recommended to make the subsequent analyses robust.

Once the input is defined, clicking on the CREATE CONDITION button will create the new Condition as RiverArchitect/01_Conditions/NEW_CONDITION with the following contents:

The flow depth and velocity Rasters may require manual renaming to adapt to these Raster name conventions. A River Architect Tools script facilitates renaming multiple file names. Subsequently, populating the created Condition is strongly recommended

Populate Condition


Condition - wise Morphological Unit, Depth to Groundwater, and Detrended DEM Rasters add consistency to the analyses of all modules. The Populate Condition popup window invites the user to define a Condition to be populated, and subsequently to create the following Rasters:

  • Morphological Unit,
  • Depth to Groundwater, and
  • Detrended DEM.

Make Morphological Unit Rasters


Instream morphological unit Rasters according to Wyrick and Pasternack (2014) enable the correct allocation of river design features as defined in the thresholds workbook. For this purpose, the following inputs are needed:

The delineation of morphological units as a function of flow depth and velocity can be modified in the morphological_units.xlsx workbook (RiverArchitect/.site_packages/templates/ folder). A click on the Populate Condition GUI’s View/change MU definitions opens this workbook.

ramus

For making changes in the workbook, choose either one of the pre-defined river classes (Mountain river with large roughness elements, gravel-cobble bed, or cobble-boulder bed) or select User Defined from the drop-down menu in cell E2. If User Defined is selected, morphological units can be defined as a function of upper and lower limits of flow velocity and depth in cells N6:Q22 (instream) and/or N24:Q43 (floodplain). Morphological unit names can be modified in cells M6:M22 (instream) and/or M24:M43 (floodplain). Please note:

  • Do not modify anything outside the green frames, in particular, do not make changes within the red frame (cells B3:J44 and the .templates sheet).
  • Use metric units only; for the conversion of metric units for their application to Rasters in U.S. customary units, select Units: U.S. customary (default) from the Populate Condition window. The currently selected unit system is shown at the bottom of the Populate Condition window.
  • Instream and floodplain units are currently equally applied (future versions of River Architect aim at a more precise approach to delineate floodplain morphological units).
  • The maximum length of morphological units names (M6:M22 and/or M24:M43) is 50 characters per cell.
  • River Architect calculates a Raster for each morphological unit defined using the following arcpy.sa expression: Con(h > 0, Con(((u >= u_lower) & (u < u_upper) & (h >= h_lower) & (h < h_upper)), mu_id)). The final Raster is created by the superimposition of all applicable morphological raster and using the maximum mu_id value (pre-defined in column E). with arcpy.sa cell statistics: CellStatistics(mu_id_raster_list, "MAXIMUM", "DATA").
  • The results are
    • the morphological unit’s ID Raster saved as RiverArchitect/01_Conditions/CONDITION/mu.tif; and
    • the morphological unit’s name Raster (uses an intermediated Raster to point conversion) saved as RiverArchitect/01_Conditions/CONDITION/mu_str.tif.

Make Depth to Water Table Rasters


The depth to the groundwater is primarily required for identifying relevant regions for target indigenous plant species. For this purpose, the following input Rasters are required.

  • A terrain DEM (or DTM) is automatically assigned from the selected Condition folder.
  • A low-level flow depth Raster (in arid regions) based on the assumption that the groundwater table in the vicinity of the river corresponds to at least this water level, which marks the moment of highest water stress for plants.

RiverArchitect estimates the depth to groundwater by interpolating the given low flow water surface across the DEM extent. There are three options for the interpolation method used to calculate this surface:

  • IDW: Inverse distance weighted interpolation. Each null cell in the low flow depth raster is assigned a weighted average of its 12 nearest neighbors. Each weight is inversely proportional to the second power of the distance between the interpolated cell and its neighbor. Thus, the closest neighbors to an interpolated cell receive the largest weights.
  • Kriging: Ordinary Kriging interpolation. This method also uses a weighted average of the 12 nearest neighbors, but weights are calculated using a semi-variogram, which describes the variance of the input data set as a function of the distance between points. A spherical functional form is also assumed for the fitted semi-variogram. Kriging is the most accurate interpolation method if certain assumptions are met regarding normality and stationarity of error terms. However, it is also the most computationally expensive method.
  • Nearest Neighbor: The simplest method, which sets the water surface elevation of each null cell to that of the nearest neighboring cell.

All interpolated rasters are saved with a corresponding .info.txt file which records the interpolation method and input rasters used in its creation.

Make Detrended DEM Rasters


Automation of grading or the relevance of widening and berm setbacks build on the relative elevation of the terrain over the river water surface elevation. For this purpose, the following input Rasters are required.

  • A terrain DEM (or DTM) is automatically assigned from the selected Condition folder.
  • A flow depth Raster (in arid regions) marks the level for relative elevations. Designers may have different reasons for choosing the relevant flow depth Raster (low flows for habitat enhancement or high flows for flood protection), and therefore, no recommendation is made here.

Please note that step-like artifacts may occur in the detrended DEM. The steps result from variations in the Thalweg elevation of the DEM that attenuate with the selection of flow depth Rasters of higher discharges. Users can decide to select a low-flow depth Raster to be on the safe side for delineating vegetation plantings or a high-flow depth Raster to reduce step-like artifacts in the detrended DEM.

Create a spatial subset of a Condition


The creation of a spatial subset of a Condition requires a Boundary shapefile or Raster (if this is a GRID Raster, select the corresponding .aux.xml file). The boundary file needs to contain On-values (Integer 1) and Off-values (Integer 0) values only as specified in the Project Area Polygon preparation.

If a shapefile is selected:

  • River Architect automatically uses the gridcode Field in the Shapefile's Attribute Table.
  • If the gridcode Field cannot be found, the third Field or the FID Field is used. (in that order). Note that the enforced usage of the FID Field may cause errors later on.
  • Ensure that the gridcode / third Field contains On-Off Integers only, where 0=Outside and 1=Inside boundary.
  • Restart River Architect to create multiple subsets. This issue is related to arcpy, which will not release the new datasets unless River Architect is closed (otherwise there will be an error message referring to registering datasets) We are developing workarounds.

If a Raster is selected:

  • Ensure that the Raster contains On-Off Integers only, where 0=Outside and 1=Inside boundary.

The boundary files are of particular interest within the ProjectMaker and SHArC modules.

Analyze Flows

The sustainability (lifespan) and ecohydraulic analyses require hydraulic data related to discharges (flows) and the return period. The Analyze Discharge pop-up window guides through the creation of flow-metadata files that link hydraulic Raster names with flows and return periods for a Condition. Analyze Discharge looks for flow depth and velocity Rasters in a selected Condition, extracts the flow quantity, and creates a template workbook in the Condition folder. For this purpose, hydraulic (flow depth and velocity) Rasters must be named according to the Geofile name convetions (i.e., flow depth Rasters = “hQQQQQQ.tif” and flow velocity Rasters = “uQQQQQQ.tif”).

raq

Start with selecting a Condition from the upper listbox and click the Analyze button. This creates a workbook called RiverArchitect/01_Conditions/flow_definitions.xlsx, which automatically opens up and asks for the definitions of flow return periods in years. Frequent flows with a return period of one year or less should be assigned 1.0 (column C).

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Flow duration curves are required for ecohydraulic analyses and can be generated for specific Physical Habitats preferred by target fish species-lifestages. Select at least one Fish Species - Lifestage from the lower listbox and use the Add button (to add multiple Fish Species - Lifestages, select-add one-by-one). A click on the Modify Source button opens the Fish.xlsx workbook that contains Fish Species - Lifestage definitions. At this point, on particular fish names and seasons start/end dates may be modified. Modifications of Lifestages should be avoided. For more details, refer to the SHArC Wiki pages. Before a Fish Species - Lifestage flow duration curve can be generated, ensure to Select input Flow Series (workbook) with the following characteristics:

  • The file ending must be .xlsx
  • Column A must contain dates, where
    • row 1 is the header (i.e., A1 = "Date"),
    • row 2 indicates the date units (i.e., A2 = "(DD-MM-YY)"), and
    • date series must be entered from row 3 onward (i.e., dates in the format A3 = 5-Sep-03 or A4 = 9/5/2003).
  • Column B must contain mean daily flows, where
    • row 1 is the header (i.e., B1 = "Mean daily"),
    • row 2 indicates the date units (i.e., B2 = "(CFS)" or `B2 = “(CMS)”), and
    • mean daily flows must be entered from row 3 onward (i.e., dates in the format B3 = 59.3 or B4 = 79).
  • For later application, store the flow series workbook in RiverArchitect/00_Flows/InputFlowSeries/ (default folder where River Architect looks for flow series).

An example workbook is provided with RiverArchitect/00_Flows/InputFlowSeries/flow_series_example_data.xlsx.

Click on Make flow duration curve(s) (plural applies if multiple Fish Species - Lifestages are selected) to generate an Physical Habitat workbook for target Fish Species - Lifestages. The workbook containing the last Fish Species - Lifestage flow duration curve in the selected list will open up automatically when the flow duration curve generation finishes without error messages. All generated workbooks will be saved as RiverArchitect/00_Flows/CONDITION/flow_duration_FILI.xlsx, where FILI denotes the first two letters of the selected fish species and lifestage. The workbooks contain two tabs that link all observed mean daily flows from the target Fish Species - Lifestage’s season (tab 1) with the available 2D model data (tab 2). The result is a flow duration curve that provides a measure of how well the 2D model data may represent the relevant discharges for a Fish Species - Lifestage.

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Generate Input File(s) (.inp)


Lifespan mapping uses input files (.inp) to identify relevant Rasters and (flood) return periods. Given that Analyze Flow was previously executed for a Condition, an input file can be generated with the Make Input File tool.

The resulting input_definitions.inp is stored in the directory RiverArchitect/01_Conditions/CONDITION/. input_definitions.inp contains information about lifespan duration and Raster names, which link to Rasters containing spatial information as described in the Parameters Wiki page. The order of definitions and lines must not be changed to ensure the proper functioning of the module. Enter or change the information in the corresponding lines, only between the “=” and the “#” signs (the input routines uses these signs as start and end identifiers for relevant information). Verify that every input_definitions.inp created contains the following definitions (line by line):

Line No. Par. Description
Lines 1-3 None Do not change
Line 4 Return periods Comma-separated list of flood discharge return periods corresponding to the hydraulic rasters; i.e., the first entry after ``=’’ corresponds to the return period of the first velocity and flow depth raster (Lines 11 and 12, respectively)
Lines 5-7 None Do not change
Line 8 CHSI One raster name of spatial composite Habitat Suitability Indexes
Line 9 DoD Comma-separated list of two (first = scour, second = fill) DEM of Differences rasters; if one raster is missing, replace it by double quotation marks, for example scour is missing: ... = "", fill # ...
Line 10 det One raster name defining the detrended DEM raster
Line 11 u Comma-separated list defining flow velocity rasters corresponding to discharge return periods (Line4); replace missing rasters by double quotation marks, for example, when u rasters of a return period list of five entries are not available for entries 2 and 4, ... = u001000, "", u003000, "", u005000 # .... However, ensure that at least two u rasters are defined. The 00Q000 identifier relates to the underlying discharge in thousand cfs or m3/s (see Geofile name conventions).
Line 12 h Comma-separated list defining flow depth rasters corresponding to discharge return periods (Line 4); replace missing rasters by double quotation marks, for example, when h rasters of a return period list of six entries are not available for entries 2, 3 and 5, type ... = h001000, "", "", h004000, "", h006000 # .... Ensure that at least two h rasters are defined. The 00Q000 identifier relates to the underlying discharge in thousand cfs or m3/s (see Geofile name conventions).
Line 13 Grain size One raster name defining the raster containing mean grain diameters (typically dmean; pay attention to raster units: use feet for U.S. customary and m for S.I.)
Line 14 mu One raster name delineating morphological units according to the definitions in Sec. \ref{sec:par}
Line 15 d2w One raster name defining the depth to groundwater table
Line 16 dem One raster name defining the digital elevation model
Line 17 sidech One raster name delineating appropriate sites for side channels
Line 18 wild One raster name for the spatial confinement of the feature analysis of 0/nodata (= off) and 1 (= on) values for any purpose (wildcard raster)

The LifespanDesign module produces results based on the available information only, where any raster name can be substituted with double quotation marks. However, this lack of information reduces the accuracy of final lifespan and design maps. No results are produced for a feature where the information is insufficient for the analysis. The required information for every feature corresponds to the definitions in the input file.

Map extent input definition files

The file RiverArchitect/LifespanDesign/.templates/mapping.inp defines map center points, extents (dx and dy in ft or m) and scales (scale has no effect currently).
The extent of the map determines the map scale, where the corresponding dx and dy values define the map width and height in ft or m, respectively. The layout templates (in the project file RiverArchitect/02_Maps/templates/river_template.aprx) define the paper size, which is by default “ANSI E landscape” (width = 44 inches, height = 34 inches).
The map focus is defined page-wise in mapping.inp from Line 8 onward. Existing pages can be removed by simply deleting the line. Additional pages can be added by inserting or appending a new line below Line 8, which needs to begin with the keyword “Page” and x and y need to be stated in brackets, separated by a comma without any white space.
Good practice for changing the map layouts starts with importing the determine_extents.mxd layout from RiverArchitect/ModifyTerrain/templates/ into a map project (.aprx). Zoom to new focus point using, for example, using ArcGIS Pro’s Go To XY function or freehand to any convenient extent. Use ArcGIS Info cursor and click in the center of the reticule to obtain the current center point. Write new center point coordinates for the desired page number in mapping.inp.
For retrieving the extent, in ArcGIS Desktop, go to the View menu, click on Data Frame Properties... and go to the Data Frame tab. In the Extent box, click on the scroll-down menu and choose Fixed Extent. Subtracting the Right value from the Left value defines dx (Line 3 in mapping.inp) and subtracting the Top value from the Bottom value defines dy (Line 4 in mapping.inp).
The function uses these definitions for zooming to each point defined below Line 8 in mapping.inp, cropping the map to the defined extents and exporting each page to a pdf map bundle containing as many pages as there are defined in mapping.inp.
The program uses the reference coordinate system and projection defined in the .aprx file’s map layout templates or in mapping.inp.

Align Input Rasters


In order to ensure robustness and accuracy of analyses, it is important that input rasters share a common alignment, cell size, and coordinate system. Input rasters can be aligned in the following ways:

  • During creation of a new Condition, align input rasters by using a background raster and selecting the “Use to align input rasters” checkbox.
  • For an existing condition, the tool from the GetStarted menu allows selection of an alignment raster.

The alignment routine reprojects and/or resamples the input raster data to match the following attributes from the input alignment raster:

  • ArcGIS SpatialRefernce (i.e. reference coordinate system)
  • lower left corner of raster, modulo cell size
  • cell size

Caution should be taken when using the built-in alignment routine, as input data may have already been resampled (e.g. from a mesh, TIN, or point features) and repeated resampling of data may create artifacts in the resultant data. Additionally, other routines in River Architect assume that water surface elevation can be calculated by summation of the DEM and depth rasters, which may not hold true if these data have been subject to different resampling schemes.

Geofile (Raster) conventions


The input Rasters need to be in GeoTIFF (.tif) format, notably, a raster_name.tif file. Note that River Architect is designed to also handle Esri’s GRID format, but the primary raster file type should be GeoTIFF. Depth Raster names must start with h and velocity Raster names must start with u, followed by a six-digit discharge QQQQQQ, which is independent of the unit system. For example, a flow depth Raster associated with a discharge of 55 m³/s needs to be called h000055.tif and a velocity Raster associated with a discharge of 11000 m³/s needs to be called u011000.tif. Likewise, a flow depth Raster associated with a discharge of 55 cfs needs to be called h000055.tif. The Raster names ignore discharge value digits after the decimal point. Moreover, every flow depth Raster requires a matching velocity Raster and vice versa (e.g., h000055.tif requires a Raster called u000055.tif).
Note: back.tif may be used to limit calculation extents.

Manual input data preparation


Relevant Raster names for calculation are defined in an input file (.inp) of the LifespanDesign module (input section see for details and definitions). Please note that .inp files for lifespan mapping are different from the input (.txt) files required for River Builder. Sample data representing a patch of a Californian gravel-cobble bed river in 2100 can be downloaded here. The input file of the sample case is located in 01_Conditions/2100_sample/input_definitions.inp file. The sample case includes a set of Rasters for flow scenarios corresponding to return periods of < 1.0 (ignored in the input file), 1.0, … , 2.0, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0, 30.0, 40.0, and 50.0 years, as well as a couple of annual discharges for habitat assessments. The according flows are defined in 01_Conditions/2100_sample/flow_definitions.xlsx, with pre-compiled flow duration curves for whetted area (alhy), Chinook salmon juveniles (chju), fry (chfr), and spawning (chju) lifestages that are stored in 00_Flows/2100_sample/flow_duration_FILI.xlsx (see above flow definitions).

The below listed Rasters are available in GeoTIFF format in 01_Conditions/2100_sample/ for the sample case condition = 2100_sample. Italic font indicates optional Rasters, which are, however, recommended to use because they significantly increase the pertinence of lifespan maps; Rasters written in CAPITALIZED ROUGE FONT font are required for River Architect to work. The Raster names correspond to the above-described naming conventions.

PARAMETER (UNITS)
FLOW VELOCITY (in fps or m/s)
u000300 lowest
u000350
u……
u088053 highest
FLOW DEPTH (in ft or m)
h000300 lowest
h000350
h……
h088053 highest
Topographic change (in ft or m)
dodfill average annual deposition height
dodscour average annual scour depths
Depth to groundwater (in ft or m)
d2w referring to a baseflow of 15 m³/s (530 cfs)
Background (black and white)
back here: determines LifespanDesign’s calculation extents
MORPHOLOGICAL UNITS Float / Int
mu generated with Populate Condition (Get Started)
D mean (in ft or m)
dmean_ft or dmean mean valley grain size
DEM (in ft a.s.l.)
dem Digital Elevation Model
DEM DETRENDED (in ft or m)
dem_detrend generated with Populate Condition
Side channel (0/nodata=off and 1=on)
sidech Side channel delineation
Wildcard (0/nodata=off and 1=on)
wild On/ off values for any purpose to confine analyses

More Rasters indicating morphological units (e.g., Wyrick and Pasternack 2014) or topographic change (e.g., Carley et al. 2012) as well as a detrended digital elevation model (DEM), surface grain size estimate and a depth to groundwater Raster are (optionally) required.

Some parameters, such as the dimensionless bed shear stress or the mobile grain size, can be directly computed from the flow velocity, depth, and present grain size. Additional input Rasters could be used for every parameter to shorten calculation duration, but this approach required large storage capacity on the hard disk and it is less flexible regarding computation methods. Therefore, the River Architect uses its own routines for calculating parameters such as the dimensionless bed shear stress or mobile grain sizes.

NoData handling: River Architect does not consider pixels with NoData values and has routines to handle NoData during the calculation.